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185 Back to Reality

In the aftermath of Bulgaria's declaration of independence, the new state works to establish its place on the European stage. Meanwhile a counter-revolution rocks the Ottoman Empire and European royals build new resentments.



Major Characters in this Episode

Yane Sandanski

Tsar Ferdinand

Mustafa Kemal

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

President Theodore Roosevelt

Sultan Abdul Hami II

Sultan Mehmed V Eleftherios Venizelos


Timeline for this Episode

  • 1909 Jan 1st - БРСДП and БСДС sign a unifying protocol. They hold a congress in July and officially form БР-СДП.

  • 1909 Jan 17th - Petersburg offers to forgive the Ottoman debt from the 1877-1878 war, as long as The Gate gives up claims to Bulgaria, and as long as Bulgaria pays Russia 82 million leva as an external loan with a 5-year gratis period and a symbolic interest rate. The Gate accepts these terms on March 3rd.

  • 1909 Feb 5th - Russia officially recognizes Bulgarian independence.

  • 1909 Feb 18th - National educational law. School’s boards of trustees are given a lot of freedom and women can now be elected.

  • 1909 Feb 22nd - Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire settle the latter’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with a 2.2 million Lira payment to the Ottomans.

  • 1909 March 9th - Referendum law for municipal affairs, following the Swiss model.

  • 1909 March 10th - Law for the encouragement of local production, including agrarian coops.

  • 1909 March 21st - Law ordains that Bulgarians moving out of the Northern Dobruja regions have to sell their land to the Romanian government at lowered prices. The population of Northern Dobruja are given political rights.

  • 1909 March 31st - Apr 15th - Coup attempt in Constantinople.

  • 1909 Apr 6th - The Gate recognizes Bulgaria’s independence. A Russian-Bulgarian financial protocol is signed for the railroads to be nationalized. By the middle of April, all the Great Powers and the Balkan countries recognize Bulgaria’s independence.

  • 1909 Apr 8th - Ottoman reforms in Macedonia are officially ended.

  • 1909 May 22nd -The Bulgarian PMs file a memoir in the Ottoman parliament for the improvement of the situation of Bulgarians in the European villaettes.

  • 1909 Aug 3rd-10th - Constituent congress of the Bulgarian National-Federal party, held by actors of ВМОРО’s left, based on the 18th of July manifesto and the project program from Aug 14th 1908. Two branches are formed.

  • 1909, 28 August - Coup in Greece.

  • 1909, August - 52 tobacco factories form the United Tobacco Factories, together controlling 70% of Bulgaria’s total tobacco production.

  • 1909 Oct 3rd - Ottoman law forbidding the existence of organizations based on ethnicity. In the beginning of November the authorities break up the Bitolya constitutional club and on the 18th they order the party to disband in order to avoid repressions. The Right is once again illegal.

  • 1909 Dec 13th - Constituent congress for the Central Union of the Bulgarian Agrarian Coops.

  • 1909 Dec 14-30th - Organizational tour in the Struma revolutionary district for the continuation of the revolutionary fight.

  • 1909 Dec 25-27th - First Balkan Social-Democratic conference in Belgrade.


The nine European sovereigns at the funeral of Edward VII including Tsar Ferdinand
The nine European sovereigns at the funeral of Edward VII including Tsar Ferdinand

The meeting of the Ottoman Parliament at which they accepted Bulgarian Independence
The meeting of the Ottoman Parliament at which they accepted Bulgarian Independence

The CUP army moving to retake Constantinople
The CUP army moving to retake Constantinople


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