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201 Resistance and Acceptance

As the fighting of the Second Balkan Wars ends, Bulgaria searches for a path forward and hundreds of thousands of people in the region face difficult decisions: to stay or leave.



Major Characters in this Episode:

PM Danev

PM Radoslavov

James Bouchier

Tsar Ferdinand

Tsar Nicholas II

General Savov

King Constantine


Timeline for this episode:

  • 1913, Aug 2nd - The Tsar and his sons lead a triumphal parade through Sofia.

  • 1913, Aug 16th - Turks and Pomaks in Western Thrace declare the Gyumurjina Republic.

  • 1913, Aug 21st - The VMRO orders its members to resume activities and prepare for a new uprising.

  • 1913, Sep 12th - The Ohrid-Debar Uprising by VMRO begins.

  • 1913, Sep 19th - The Treaty of Constantinople is signed between Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

  • 1913, Sep 19th - Ohrid is reoccupied by Serbian forces.

  • 1913, Sep 20th - The Ohrid-Debar Uprising ends as Bulgarian and Albanian forces flee over the Albanian border.

  • 1913, Nov 2nd - The Edirne Agreement revokes the right of Bulgarians from Eastern Thrace to return and replace them with Ottoman refugees from newly acquired Bulgarian territories.

  • 1913, Nov 24th - New elections for the National Assembly result in a loss for the governing Liberal coalition.

  • 1913, Nov 26th - The Bulgarian Exarch formally moves from Constantinople to Sofia.

Sources used in this episode:

  • Between Two Motherlands: Nationality and Emigration among the Greeks of Bulgaria, 1900-1949 by Theodora Dragostinova

  • Foxy Ferdinand: Tsar of Bulgaria by Stephen Constant

  • The Orient Within: Muslim Minorities and the Negotiation of Nationhood in Modern Bulgaria by Mary Neuburger

  • The Treatment of Prisoners of War Captured by the Greek Army during the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 by Panagiotis Delis

  • Bulgaria 1879-1946: The Challenge of Choice by Tatiana Kostadinova

  • The Rose of the Balkans: A Short History of Bulgaria by Ivan Ilchev

  • A Concise History of Bulgaria by R.J. Crampton

  • История на България в Дати by Vasil Katsunov, Plamen Mitev, Valeri Kolev, Evgenia Kalinova, and Iskra Baeva

The borders of the newly declared Gyumurjina Republic.
The borders of the newly declared Gyumurjina Republic.

The flag of the Gyumurjina Republic.
The flag of the Gyumurjina Republic.

Map showing the border changes in Eastern Thrace around the Treaty of Constantinople.
Map showing the border changes in Eastern Thrace around the Treaty of Constantinople.

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